Risk for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Increased With Chemo After Arthroplasty

Post-TKA, -THA, -TSA chemotherapy linked to increased incidence of periprosthetic joint arthroplasty
knee replacement arthroplasty surgery
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Medically Reviewed By:
Mark Arredondo, M.D.

FRIDAY, May 24, 2024 (HealthDay News) -- Postoperative chemotherapy is associated with an increased incidence of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) among patients with total joint arthroplasties, according to a study published online May 2 in the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Amir Human Hoveidaei, M.D., from the Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics at the Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, and colleagues examined whether chemotherapy increases PJI rates in patients who received postarthroplasty chemotherapy within one year of surgery. Patients in a matched control group did not receive postarthroplasty chemotherapy. Data were included from 8,558 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients; 6,707 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients; and 1,761 total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) patients.

The researchers found that PJI rates were significantly higher in the chemotherapy group at two, three, and four years for TKA (odds ratios, 1.59, 1.57, and 1.40, respectively) and at two, three, and four years for THA (odds ratios, 2.27, 2.32, and 2.25, respectively). After four years, TSA patients had a significant increase in PJI rates (odds ratio, 2.20).

"Postoperative chemotherapy agents may potentiate the development of PJI in patients who have undergone knee, hip, or shoulder joint arthroplasty. Future prospective studies focusing on this potential correlation would be crucial, so that essential and preventive measures can be taken into account," the authors write.

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